Saturday, January 31, 2009

"HF Packers"

WA5PSA was mentioning QRP operations on the Tulsa Tech Net Friday evening these folks that combine backpacking with amateur radio.

Here is the link for their website. Maybe you'll find them on 60m or 17m. They hold nets down there.


Tennis Ball Launcher

This is a post from our friend Butch(KD5RSS)

Hey look at this.

Thursday, January 29, 2009

Free Version Audio Program - O' Scope ETC.

This is a rather interesting program. You can try the free version by going to the web site above. I have used it to verify the audio frequency of a tone sent out by the Claremore Repeater. It looks like it could be used as a signal generator and several other interesting bench top tools.

What do you think?

Download it if this is in your area of interest. I have been playing with audio and found it cool.

Wednesday, January 28, 2009

Echolink on the Repeaters

(click picture to zoom in)

Hi Gang,
From time to time, folks ask "what has to be done to get Echolink back on the repeater ?"

1) Someone with a stable, high-speed, Internet connection
2) A PC with pretty good up-time (probably not someone's daily driver)
3) Echolink running on that machine pretty much full-time.
(it would get a separate node number for this purpose.)
4) A clear link (a small mobile rig ? roof-top antenna ?) to the .91 repeater.

The someone would be around quite a bit to disconnect things if something went nuts. Maybe someone "retired" ?

Ideally, we'd have "remote base" radios at Tiger Hill for Echolink. That would let us put the radio mentioned in "4" above on a frequency pair besides the input and output of .91 repeater. We could use a frequency pair somewhere on 440 for these purposes. Then, if something happened, we could disconnect it via touch-tones to the controller on .91. (Assuming we get a separate controller (CAT-200 or something) back up there.)

5) some small mobile rigs for use at the repeater site.

I'll try to sketch this out if someone is interested.

If anyone can supply some of the above (parts, time, Internet connection, old computer, floor space in your shack, etc.) let us know.


Monday, January 26, 2009


Okay, remember the TRS-80 and machines that booted up into an interpreter for the BASIC language on start-up ? You could get right down to doing stuff.

Try this. ... It's fun and easy...

1) Cut 'n paste your program into the BASIC program box.
2) Hit the RUN button in the Controls box.
3) "Instantly" see your output in the Output or Canvas Box.

10 Print "Hello World."

or here is a bit longer program that threw together quickly.

10 REM Scott Haley KD5NJR

20 REM SWR program
21 Let F = 0
22 Let R = 0
23 Let T = 0
24 Let B = 0
25 Let S = 0

30 Input "Enter Forward Power"; F
32 Input "Enter Reverse Power";R

40 REM SWR= [1 + sqrt(r/f)] / [1 - sqrt(r/f)]
41 Let T = 1 + sqr(R/F)
42 Let B = 1 - sqr(R/F)
43 Let S = T / B

50 Print "SWR is computed :"
51 Print S

60 END

Try it out and lemme know how you like it ?

1. Erase out the existing program from the text box.
2. Use cut 'n paste to easily put the new program in.
3. Press Run.
4. Enter a value like 15 for 15W Forward Power.
5. Enter a value like 0.1 for 0.1W Reflected Power.
6. Program gives 1.17 for SWR.

Do you have any other quick jobs or common applications that you could use QuiteBASIC for ?
I think it might be good for jobs small enough you don't need an Excel spreadsheet for.
Or need a more complicated program for.

And, you can share code with others.


Saturday, January 24, 2009

Current Tech Class Study guide w/ question pool needed.

Would one of you recently licensed hams like to "pay it forward" so to speak? I know of a 10 year old Girl Scout that is very interested in getting her Tech class license. Would any of you in the local area have a Tech class license study guide with the current question pool that she could have? She says she'll use her allowance money for it or she may trade some Girl Scout cookies for it since it's that time of the year.

If you can help out, please email me, Matt, at (my callsign) with your information. Thanks.

Who is this famous Lady?

Many of you may know this fine Lady.

Leave a comment if you do.

Tuesday, January 20, 2009


Mark / K6HX from the Brainwagon blog is pretty sharp guy from the looks of things.

Here's a sampling
of some work he's done receiving weather satellites.

I think that is going to have to go up there on my to-do list. Looks interesting.


I'll let you know as I find more interesting stuff.


Listen to LUSAT-Oscar 19

LUSAT - Oscar 19

This looks pretty easy and fun.
AE5FT / Gene tried step one this afternoon.

1) Tune an HT or another 440 MHz rig (preferably with an outside) to 437.127 MHz. (or 437.125 if that is as close as you can get.) FM simplex. Turn your squelch OFF. You're going for a signal that sounds like the mp3 file at the Brainwagon blog:

(I've been able to copy this signal from the easy chair before. But I get hung up here 'cause of the code.)

So you don't leave the radio on all day, here's some flyby times for Tulsa.
ate (UTC)AOS (UTC)DurationAOS
Max El
21 Jan 0910:01:0700:13:5825278116610:15:05
21 Jan 0911:40:3000:13:5402930522111:54:24
21 Jan 0919:43:4200:03:16641513819:46:58
21 Jan 0921:15:5900:14:11140318635921:30:10
21 Jan 0922:55:2400:14:041952725233423:09:28
22 Jan 0909:30:4400:12:1635149514709:43:00
22 Jan 0911:09:1300:14:5186029020411:24:04
22 Jan 0912:50:3200:08:54340629826512:59:26
22 Jan 0920:46:0100:12:381221763720:58:39
22 Jan 0922:23:4800:14:571775526034322:38:45

2) Take some really good notes of the three-character groups that come after the E LUSAT HI HI intro. (Or, try some screen shots of a waterfall or oscillograph display from your sound card ham software or Audacity podcast software.)

3) There is a lookup table to go from the letters to telemetry values (numbers).

4) Then, you put the numbers into some formulas to scale them into voltages and temperatures in the satellite.

Which sounds pretty cool. You can see what's going on in the belly of the beast. I'm going to get set up to repeat this process. If you beat me to it, send me your screen shots and I'll give you hand with the rest.

I wonder how difficult it would be to homebrew something like this bird ?


Sunday, January 18, 2009

NASA to test future Mars Base on Antarctica


I'm looking forward to working these guys on HF perhaps someday.

... from

Saturday, January 17, 2009

A Milestone is Reached.

For the last few weeks, as time permitted, I have been working on building a 40 Meter Transceiver kit. The kit is called the 2n2/40 and it is kitted by the Norcal QRP Club (click). They make great kits at very reasonable prices. Since this is a labor of love for them, they do all of the development and kit production for free and sell everything at cost. They have temporarily suspended taking new orders, but I understand they should begin accepting new orders in the next week or so. The kit is available in 40 M, 30 M and 20 M versions – I ordered the 40 M version.

The kit designer is QRP legend, Jim Kortge – K8IQY. Jim perfected a circuit board building technique called Manhattan Construction. Rather than etch circuit boards and drill holes, the builder uses small islands of circuit board material and glues (Crazy Glue) them to a blank circuit board. The connections between components are made on top of these “islands” by simply bending the component leads so that they stand upright (so the board looks like downtown Manhattan, I guess). You solder the leads to the islands. You can see an example of this construction technique here (click). You've got to see these pictures to appreciate the simplicity of this technique and Jim's craftsmanship. Jim has designed a whole series of rigs around the venerable 2N2222 transistor (the cockroach of the solid state world). The rigs perform as well as store bought rigs costing hundreds, if not thousands, of dollars (except they are CW only and top out at 5W).

However, K8IQY and Norcal have teamed up to produce these kits using traditional circuit boards. Now you can stuff a traditional circuit board, solder some leads and build one of Jim's rigs cheaper than you could order the parts yourself.

The assembly manual (online at the Norcal site) is every bit as good, and simple, as one of the old Heathkit manuals. However, that has not stopped me from making a few mistakes as I go along. Did you know a circuit is not likely to work if you install the diodes backwards, or put the wrong resistors in the right holes (or is it the right resistors in the wrong holes)? But the Norcal manual provides easy testing procedures at each stage of the build, and there is a very supportive Yahoo group where K8IQY lurks to help you with troubleshooting problems. I have completed the receiver portion of the 2N2/40. Here is a picture of the circuit board with the receiver strip completed (some controls are temporarily tacked in right now – awaiting their home in the cabinet). Now, on to building the transmitter portion!

The receiver is very sensitive and the audio is good and strong and rock solid. I think I'm in love.

UPDATE: I just saw that Norcal is once again accepting orders for the 2n2/xx kit. It's a limited run of 500 kits.

Brad - WA5PSA

January Breakfast Photos

Breakfast 2/7/2009

Come on up!

To the The Broken Arrow Ham Radio Breakfast

We have confirmed our reservation at the Golden Corral on 71st and Mingo.

Please join us on February 7, 2009 (Saturday) at 8:00 AM

Everyone is welcome... Bob and Virginia


Friday, January 16, 2009

Titanic Radio Rescue - Updated

Ask Scott(KD5NJR) about the Titanic Museum in Branson.

The name Harold Bride might mean nothing to most people, but hundreds of people owe their lives to him. He was only twenty-two years old as he applied for a job that would make him both a hero, and a legend. He was the assistant "Wireless Telegraph (Radio) Operator" aboard the newest ship, and the new pride of the "White Star Line" transoceanic passenger ship line, "The R.M.S. Titanic." She was considered to be the safest sea-going vessel ever built, eight-hundred, and eighty-two, an one-half feet long, ninety-two, and one-half feet wide, she displaced sixty-six thousand tons of water, she was one hundred, and seventy-five feet tall, and had sixteen watertight compartments. Her builders insisted that she would remain afloat if even up to five of those compartments somehow filled with water. Bride boarded her at South Hampton, England, for her maiden voyage to New York City, on 10 April 1912, and served under First Wireless Officer George Phillips, and Captain John Edward Smith. She carried two-thousand-two hundred, and seven passengers, and crew, even though she carried only life rafts capable of carrying one thousand-one hundred, and seventy-eight souls. Many famous people crowded the rails as she set sail, and since "Wireless Telegraph" was a new "Novelty," both Phillips, and Bride were kept busy with the messages being sent to shore from the people aboard, wishing that their friends, and relatives were there with them. Four days after the voyage, on 14 April, the radio broke down early in the day, and Phillips told Bride to turn in while he fixed it. He got the radio fixed, and was continuing to send these messages, when he received a warning from the ocean liner "Californian" warning that ice bergs had drifted into the shipping lanes. Phillips told the radio operator to shut up, that he was busy sending messages from those aboard to the receiving station at Cape Race, Nova Scotia. Forty minutes later, "Titanic" struck one of these bergs, tearing a huge hole in her side, and began taking on water. Bride awoke, and offered to help. The captain appeared, and told them to start sending S.O.S. instead of C.Q.D. Phillips was able to contact "Californian" only ten miles away, and then "Carpathia" while bride continued to signal S.O.S. Phillips sent Bride to find the captain, and to report that "Carpathia," and "Olympic" were both heading towards them. Bride returned to the radio room, which by now was filling with water, and just in time to see a sailor from the boiler area fighting with Phillips for his life vest. Brine hit the man with something that he found, and drug Phillips to safety. Spotting the last life raft, and several men trying to free it from its mounting, Bride started to assist when a big wave came awash, and pushed the life raft into the sea. Bride held on, and found himself in the water, beneath the raft. He righted the raft, and started pulling men aboard. He found Phillips, who had died from the wounds inflicted by the sailor, and the icy cold water. Bride was taken aboard "Carpathia" and even put to work in the radio room, after he warmed up a bit. He gave his statement when he arrived in New York,

Ron Lancaster (KB5VDB)

Thursday, January 15, 2009

Another maritime rescue story

While surfing the web today I ran across another interesting tale of maritime rescue. Again, this tale involved someone who we hear on the 146.910 Broken Arrow amateur radio repeater from time to time. Today's tale involves Guy (WB5MXO).

You can read all about it at the link below:



Matt (WX5LIB)

Wednesday, January 14, 2009

All Comments are Welcome!

We want to encourage all comments.

To make that possible we have decided to allow comments from anyone.

You do not need a google id.

Enter your comment and if you have a google id ...use it. Otherwise use Anonymous

Enter your comment and at the bottom add your name ...

Sunday, January 11, 2009

Michael Manring(KE5YOO) - Antenna Project ... Updated

Michael Manring(KE5YOO) sends these photos of his portable 3 element Yagi beam antenna. He made this antenna based on the internet’s “Tape Measure Beam” antenna plans. The site describing the design and construction is

"While this beam does not seem to perform as well as the original author claims, it is a good portable beam that I hope will aid in finding the next fox. Also, I plan to use the antenna when RV camping at the local area lakes.

Ray(KC5WSI) also suggested use on a boat. My family enjoys a pontoon boat that this beam may work well on. We will have to give it a try this summer".


Michael Manring



This website seems to be full of information.

To our friends up Pryor way: You ever hear these guys on ?


The Saturday Night 10m Net - Updated


The new frequency for the 10M NET is 28.355 USB
This move was required to avoid a high pitched squeal
Contact Ray(KC5WSI) if you have any questions.

It didn't take a lot of work to make it happen, but I was able to check into KC5WSI's 10m net this past Saturday night at 7p. It was on 28.350 MHz USB.

I had a Hamstick vertical antenna on the top of the truck. I drove it with an ICOM 706MKIIg. I suspect about any HF rig would do as I was running only 30 or 40 Watts (until I get my SWR on the antenna a little better.)

The net attracted mostly local folks (Tulsa, Waggoner, Creek, Rogers counties.) But I think there is the potential for other states to roll in.

I'd encourage all the Techs, Generals and Extras to give this activity a shot.

A Russian Drifting Station


Imaging exploring the Arctic by getting locked in the ice and just drifting along until it thaws and lets you loose... Probably radio is the contact with the outside world...

Interesting QSL Card


That would have been something... to hear something new like a satellite.


Saturday, January 10, 2009

Don Gregory(KE5MXH) - Sea Rescue Update Check these links for map of voyage etc.

This post was reported by The BAARC Hamgram , November 2008

The original report is copied below in blue. Our Thanks to Ron Lancaster(KB5VDB) for his work to fully document this historic ham radio event. You will find Ron's updated article imediately following the reprint from the BAARC Published Document.

Distress call from Seas Answered
The following is a brief synopsis of a local ham
assist on a rescue at sea.

Don, KE5MXH had an opportunity recently to assist
with a rescue in the Pacific Ocean. A ship in distress was
sailing vessel out of California on a returning trip from
Hawaii. The ship (boat)...insert proper term here...ran
into a storm and used all but 5 gallons of fuel for its
engine. The only person on board was AC7ID
Don, KE5MXH, from Bristow was on 14.300
frequency and had a better copy than the Maritime Net
Control Operator. The contact with the vessel, the
SISIUTIL, was made by a third ham located in
California, whose call is not available.
The net control operator was reported to me as KI4OR
or possibly KR4OR from looking at the Maritime Net
Web page.
I think the GPS of the sailboat was 35.98775 -95.81074
at the time of the problem.Thanks Stan, KE5LEP for relaying the information

This item has been reported before, but all of the pertinent information wasn’t available at that time.

Being “Land Locked” in Oklahoma might lead some people to believe that you might never be in a situation where you can help a ship in distress, but not Don Gregory, KE5MXH, of Bristow, Oklahoma, an Amateur (or Ham) Radio Operator, who regularly listens to the Maritime Mobile net on 14.300 Mhz on the twenty meter Amateur Radio band.

On or about 10:45 AM (Local Time) on 14 October 2008, he was listening, when he heard a small Sailboat, “THE SISIUTL“ manned by Robert E Bechler, whose Ham Radio call sign is AC7ID, give a distress call off the coast of California. The boat had left Hawaii bound for California, but it ran into some bad weather, and had used all but five gallons of fuel for its engine, (The 44 foot Gulfstream catamaran “SISIUIL” ) and was still about one hundred, and fifty miles away from the shore.

The Maritime Mobile Net Control operator,

Dale M. Botwin(KR4OR) of Miami, Florida, was having trouble pulling Bechler’s signal out, and Don offered his help, stating that he had an excellent copy on both operators. Botwin tried for several minutes to help, and even though Gregory was able to relay information to, and from Bechler, Botwin decided to turn control of the net over to an operator in California, whose is Ron Anderson(W9RMA), and lives in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin.

Ron was able to make much better contact with Bechler, get his GPS position, which was 35.98775 north latitude, and 95.81074 west longitude, and contact the US Coast Guard, who arrived in about an hour, and rescued Bechler.
Ham radio operators routinely help with situations like this, as well as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and other events that affect large numbers of people. Hams are allowed to operate on several bands of frequencies, using several different modes such as voice, Morse Code, radio-teletype, several digital modes, and Amateur Television, just to name a few. Hams are always willing to help, and many times are the only means of communications to remote parts of the world, or even just a few miles away.

Since leaving Seattle in 2002, Bechler, of Who Kent Washington, and Sisiutl have logged over 50,000 miles in the Pacific. 2008 was one of the longest passages covering 7,500 miles from New Zealand to California.
After arriving in New Zealand in 2007, Bob's 3rd Puddle Jump, Bob met and married Caryl St Clair in Wellington, New Zealand. She had never sailed before but loves the South Pacific islands. Her heavy involvement in animal welfare led to her establishing a foundation on Majuro, in the Marshal Islands for spaying/neutering street animals to help control their population and improves their life. She received a grant to purchase necessary equipment for veterinarians to use in surgery on remote islands. In 2008 we sailed from New Zealand to California to pick up the equipment and join the 2008 Baja Ha-Ha fleet leaving San Diego in November. Along the way we stopped in Tonga, Samoa, Tokelau, Palmyra Island, and Hawaii. In Hawaii Caryl flew to Seattle while Bob began a solo passage to California. It was during this time that he experienced his emergency, his second time to be rescued by the Coast Guard, with the other being in 2006.
Ron Lancaster (KB5VDB)

Saturday, January 3, 2009

Coast to Coast AM

Do any of you listen to Coast to Coast AM on 1170 AM in the Tulsa area? If so, I hear there is supposed to be a ham radio discussion with Art Bell tonight.

Mainly, this is a test post, but I wanted to put some kind of information out there for you besides just "test".


Tuning a 6 Meter "Hamstick"


Last year at the OKC "Ham Holiday" hamfest I picked up a 6m vertical "Hamstick" antenna. The price was right and most folks say they're an OK antenna. Probably nothing to write home about compared to a true 6m quarter-wave whip, but if I really get into 6m, I'll consider it.

Anyway, I have a 10m Hamstick I need to get ready for the 10m nets, so I considered this practice.


A Hamstick is a physically short (compared to a 1/4-wavelength) antenna consisting of a helically-wound section and a stainless steel whip that must be adjusted up and down via a set screw. The name of the game is to get this whip the right length then cut it off. What length? Well the box said it should do a 1.5 SWR, so that was my goal. And I knew I wanted to operate on the 50.1 SSB area and the 52.525 MHz FM simplex areas.

1. a "sharpie marker"
2. pad and paper
3. a scientific calculator (with a square root key)
4. a wattmeter
5. my VX-7R HT set to FM as a signal source.

After reading the directions, I made some Sharpie marks every .25" from 4" to 5.75" from the end of the whip facing the black core of the antenna (the main part). I measured SWR along those points.

Since Brad (WA5PSA) made a comment, please see the info below.

1. I used a MFJ-874 "Grand Master" Wattmeter. It's single needle, but the scale is big. I used the "HF" setting.
2. I checked the forward and reverse power each time.
(The batteries are getting weaker and output power is less each time)
3. I calibrated the SWR scale each time. (see above)
4. Take your time.
5. SWR= [1 + sqrt(r/f)] / [1 - sqrt(r/f)] if you want to double check the meter.
sqrt = square root
r = reverse power from antenna
f = forward power from transmitter

52.525 MHz
# in. F pwr. R SWR
1 5.75 4.25 0.1 1.5
2 5.50 5.00 0.2 1.7
4 5.00 4.75 0.3 1.7
5 4.50 5.00 0.3 1.65
5 4.25 4.00 0.2 1.85
6 4.00 4.50 0.3 1.85

The antenna works at 1.5 SWR for 50.100 MHz when set up on the dot at the 4" point on the whip.
The antenna works at 1.5 SWR for 52.525 MHz when set up on the dot at the 5.75" point on the whip.

Tuning can be tricky,
a) so keep good notes,
b) just move it little steps
c) I have to remember to cut off the excess that sticks into the coil per the instructions.
d) You have to have it on the truck where you want it when you tune it.


A discussion on SWR

Hi Guys,

Butch had a book at Breakfast today about transmission lines. It was a nice hardcover from the ARRL.

So when I got home, I tried to look for something useful on the Internet with Google and found a good page that talked about forward power, reverse power and SWR.

A lot of us have power meters. You can make the SWR calculation with a pocket calculator if it has a square root button.

I have some antennas I need to tune up for 6 and 10m. So SWR is a good thing to know about.

Here is the link:


Breakfast 01/03/2009 Was Good

Breakfast was well attended. There were 22 folks eating, laughing and enjoying it all. If you were not able to attend you can see it all here soon. Photos and Sign Up Sheet will be posted within a few days. Thanks to Paul(AE5PB) for taking the photos and to Tom(KD5CNY) for his sign-up sheet. This makes it easier for us all to remember names and call signs. Bob and Virginia gave a greeting to the group and ask questions about what the group would like to do for next time. It was agreed to meet again at the same location, the Golden Corral. We will publish the date soon and the time will remain 8:00 AM.

You are invited. Hope to see you next time.

Be happy ... sing a song.

Thursday, January 1, 2009

How I got on VHF

I'm an HF guy. Can't help it. I love CW and the squawk of SSB. But I live in one of those antenna depleted neighborhoods (dang yard Nazis!) and all I can manage is a long wire hidden in the trees. I've been yearning for something I could turn. I needed a beam. So I started thinking about VHF.

I'm also a klutz. An English major. But I love learning about stuff, QRP, building rigs and watching squiggles on scope screens. But, past the circuit board stage, I'm pretty incompetent. That's where my old buddy Mike comes in. Mike and I have known each other awhile...a long while – my call is WA5PSA and his call is WA5PSE. He's competent. So, together, we decided we could figure out how to get a couple of beams in my attic.

The first step was to build a six meter beam. Mike found a good article by the late L. B. Cebik, W4RNL, from the February, 2000 QST (pdf). Three element yagi on six meters. Since I've never had a rotatable anything, I thought I'd be in tall cotton. Then, when he told me he'd bring me an old 5 element 2 meter beam, I decided I was gonna be a big signal guy! As my son would say...WOOT!

Since we were going to put the beams in my attic we did not have to worry about wind load or weather. Therefore, we could build the six meter beam out of wood and spit wads. Well, wood and zip ties anyway. Here is a picture that will give you some idea of our “construction techniques.”

Here is a larger picture showing the beam on a temporary PVC mast that we used for initial SWR tuning. The neighbors were eying us suspiciously at this point.

We cut a PVC mast, hooked up an old rotor Mike brought me (he's a peach) and mounted both beams in the attic. After several hours of measuring and sweaty work we had working 2 meter and six meter beams in my attic.

I've got BEAMS!!! They're swinging around in my attic, but I've got beams! Now to to learn about 2M SSB and six meter skip and repeaters and...oh boy.

WA5PSA - Brad

John - The Battery Man ... TBM

John Lathrop(N5TBM)

These are pictures taken by Stan( KE5LEP) of the battery installation at the Q.T.H. of

John( N5TBM).

1. The first shot is of the "old" back-up battery with the "new" Killer Cell assy. (220 amphour ) beside it. The unit is weatherproff, visually appealing and easily accessible for service. The poly sheet covering the top came from inside the original cell assy.

2. The second is of the assy. with the cover removed, clearly showing the four 6-cell groups. The negative posts can be clearly seen tied together with a heavy lead, run inside to the shack's ground buss.

3. The third is of the positive post connections grouped together with each group connected to it's own automotive fuseholder. Each fused positive lead then goes into the shack seperately where they can be switched to be charged, loaded or isolated for future use.

There are two sizes of battery assys. available. We have no choice in what we get or how many. Usually there are some of each.
The electrical capacity ratings of these are 220 amphours and 330 amphours. All the units contain 24 cells (48 volts).

The 220 a/h units are 46" long by 8 1/2" wide by 25" high. The individual cells are 7 3/4" by 1 7/8" by 22 1/2" high. The cells can be removed from the metal "can" by removing the intercell connectors and lifting them out. Each cell weighs about 40 pounds. The entire assy. weighs 1065 pounds. ( I cut my "can" in half and welded the two pieces back together beside each other. )

The 330 a/h units are 48" long by 11" wide by 25" high. The individual cells are 7 3/4" by 2 1/2" by 22 1/2" high. Each cell weighs about 50 pounds. The assy. weighs 1320 pounds.

I hope this information helps you see the potential for keeping amateur radio "on the air" during power failures. If you have other questions e-mail or radio me. John L.,,,,N5TBM 73